Introducing a teaching tool as an attachment to a retinoscope/ophthalmoscope for imparting the skill. 

Retinoscopy (Ret) is a technique to obtain an objective measurement of the refractive error of a patient's eyes. The examiner uses a retinoscope to shine light into the patient's eye and observes the reflection (reflex) off the patient's retina. While moving the streak or spot of light across the pupil the examiner observes the relative movement of the reflex or manually places lenses over the eye (using a trial frame and trial lenses) to "neutralize" the reflex. 

Ophthalmoscopy, also called funduscopy, is a test that allows a health professional to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures using an ophthalmoscope. It is done as part of an eye examination and may be done as part of a routine physical examination. It is crucial in determining the health of the retina, optic disc, and vitreous humor.

These both from the preliminary tests done to evaluate eye health thus forming the first level of screening. Ophthalmologists/Optometrists get trained to see the reflexes and they take decisions based on it. So the training program to master in these techniques plays a crucial role in diagnosis. 

Current training problems


Delivering the concepts of retinoscopy to the beginner is challenging as it is not just sharing of the information but, imparting a skill in to an individual. The current way of delivering the skill exists in two folds.

  1. As a short lecture and video presentations for demonstrating the characteristics of the reflexs.
  2. Using a model eye to practice.

Though these methods would orient and give considerable practical knowledge, when it comes to reality, these methods have limited advantages. The following are the list of methods and difficulties, the trainees and the trainers face while undergoing the training and while training respectively.








1. To develop a teaching tool, such that, it can be used to deliver the concepts of
2. To make this tool useful to demonstrate the characteristics of the retinoscopy
reflex and make it simpler for trainees of level-I and level-II.
3. By introducing the tool, it should cut down the training and learning time for


Sandeep Vempati - Project Lead

Adarsh Shaghal  - Design Engineer

M. Sreekanth - Clinical Lead


Furqan Arab